Sperm Count: Of the millions of sperm ejaculated, only about 200 manage to reach the egg (ovum) in the woman's fallopian tube and only one actually impregnates the egg. Low sperm count also known as oligospermia occurs when sperm count is less than 20 million sperm per milliliter of semen. Other than sperm count, sperm quality and motility are equally important in male fertility.
Sperm Quality: In order for conception to occur, at least 60% of the sperm should be of a normal morphology (shape and structure). Normal sperm have an oval head and a long tail. Sperm with misshapen heads or curled tails or double tails have a lower chance of fertilizing the egg.
Sperm Motility: The sperm's tail propels it forward. Sperm should have the ability to move and swim in order to reach the egg. The chances of fertilization are greater if at least 50% of the sperm have motility (forward movement).